Section 1:"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
1954 : the Supreme court declared that school segregation based on race was illegal. American schools were ordered to teach black and white students together.
Year 1957-58, 9 black students attended Little Rock School, escorted by the army.
1970s 1980s, ‘Desegregation busing’ was a common practice of transporting racial minority children to racially diverse and well equipped schools in order to give them more opportunities.
The Busing debate : In fact, many people said that bus transportations cost a lot, black people had to live very far from their homes and didn’t have any relationship with their families, they were left alone. Moreover, white families moved or put their children in private schools, creating more and more ghettos. Finally, many states stopped school busing.
The proportion of blacks over 24 with four years of college rose from 2 per cent in 1952 to 17 per cent in 2002 (29 per cent for white people).
50 years after Little Rock : Segregation returns to America...
August 2007, the Washington Post entitled an article "Segregation in US schools is increasing"